PmWiki supports internationalization (internationalisation) of web pages, allowing accented characters to appear in page names and almost complete customization of PmWiki's prompts.
Most customization is provided via the XLPage() function in PmWiki, which loads a set of translation variables from a wiki page (typically named XLPage, but it can be named anything you wish).
The rest of this page is devoted to the installation, configuration and usage of other language(s) support. If you are looking for tools and help to localize PmWiki in your language, or how you can improve the existing translations, start on pmwiki.org with the page Localization - The translation Portal.
Loading Translation Pages
Pages for many other languages have already been created and maintained at the pmichaud.com site. You can download an archive of these translations from http://www.pmwiki.org/pub/pmwiki/i18n/ . Simply download the appropriate language archive(s), and unpack the archive(s) into the directory containing your pmwiki.php installation. Each archive contains a number of page files that are placed in your wikilib.d/ directory, and some special scripts for translations that use a character set other than iso-8859-1 (PmWiki's default). You can also use UTF-8 charset.
Once the translation pages are installed, you enable a language by adding a call to XLPage() in your config.php file. For example, to select French language prompts, one would specify
which says to load the translations for French ('fr') from the page PmWikiFr.XLPage?. It's perfectly okay to load multiple pages; so if you want to create your own local translations without changing the ones you got from an i18n archive, just create another page (see below) and load it on top. Be sure that you load first the page with your local changes:
XLPage('fr','PmWikiFr.XLPageLocal'); # my local translations
XLPage('fr','PmWikiFr.XLPage'); # from i18n.tgz
If your intention is to offer multiple languages on your site, and use Wiki Groups as language selectors, you may want to place this code in local customizations files (see Group Customizations). For example, if your site is published in French and English, and the French pages are in a group called Fr, you could create a file named Fr.php in the local/ directory which contains:
<?php if (!defined('PmWiki')) exit();
##change to French language
You may wish to create a page called PmwikiFr.php with the same content to access the French documentation in the PmwikiFr group. En.php is not necessary in this case since English is the default language.
An alternative to the above would be to add to config.php the following, which tests if there is an XLPage in a group, and if it finds one it gets loaded:
$xlpage = FmtPageName('$Group.XLPage', $pagename);
if (PageExists($xlpage)) XLPage($xlpage, $xlpage);
With this method you would need to copy any relevant XLPage into any group which needs the different language support.
See also Cookbook:MultiLanguage
Creating New Translations
If language pages don't exist for your desired language, it's easy to create one! An XLPage translation file simply contains lines of the form
'phrase' => 'translated phrase',
where "phrase" is an internationalized phrase (denoted by
$[phrase]) in PmWiki's $...Fmt variables, and "translated phrase" is what should be printed in your particular language. For example, the line (in
'Search' => 'Rechercher',
$[Search]" to "Rechercher" on output. The file Localization:XLPageTemplate is a good starting point for creating a new XLPage and has most of PmWiki's key phrases already listed in it.
If you create new versions of PmWiki pages in other languages, please consider adding them to the main PmWiki site so that they can be made available to others in the i18n archives!
The term "i18n" is commonly used as an abbreviation for the English word "internationalization". The abbreviation is derived from the fact that there are 18 letters between the "i" and the final "n" and few people want to type them all out.
Enabling "Special" Characters in WikiLinks
To enable "special" characters like for example German umlauts in WikiLinks, it is necessary to configure the server locale to ensure that PmWiki uses the proper character set definition.
If this is not possible due to limited access to the server configuration, PmWiki can be configured to use a specific locale by using the XLPage options (see XLPageTemplate).
For German umlauts, you'd need for example:
Note that the locale identifier depends on the operation system and perhaps on the specific installation.
If my wiki is internationalized by config.php, how do I revert a specific group to English?
$XLLangs = array('en'); in the group's group customization file.
If my wiki is in English and I want just one page, or group, in Spanish do I say
XLPage('es','PmWikiEs.XLPage'); in the group or page configuration file?
Yes, that is usually the best method. If you were doing this with many scattered pages, or with several languages, you might find it easier to maintain if you load the translations all in config.php like this:
$XLLangs = array('en');
Then in each group or page configuration file, you'd just use
$XLLangs = array('es'); to set the language to use (in this case, Spanish). Note that though this method is easier to maintain, its somewhat slower because it loads all the dictionaries for each page view, even if they won't be used.
What does the first parameter of this function stand for? How can it be used?
The XLPage mechanism allows multiple sets of translations to be loaded,
and the first parameter is used to distinguish them.
For example, suppose I want to have translations for both normal French
and "Canadian" French. Rather than maintain two entirely separate sets
of pages, I could do:
PmWikiFr.XLPage would contain all of the standard French translations,
while PmWikiFrCA.XLPage would only need to contain "Canada-specific"
translations -- i.e., those that are different from the ones in the
The first parameter distinguishes the two sets of translations.
In addition, a config.php script can use the
to adjust the order of translation, so if there was a group or
page where I only wanted the standard French translation, I
$XLLangs = array('fr', 'en');
and PmWiki will use only the 'fr' and 'en' translations (in that order),
no matter how many translations have been loaded with XLPage().